The EDCA, which aims to complement the 1951 Treaty on Mutual Defence and the 1999 Visiting Mission Agreement, reaffirms mutual cooperation between the United States and the Philippines to develop its individual and collective capacity to combat armed attacks, improving the interoperability of both countries, promoting long-term modernization, contributing to the maintenance and development of maritime security, and expanding humanitarian assistance in response to natural disasters.  After the fall of the Soviet Union and the decline of the communist threat in the 1990s, bilateral support for the Mutual Defence Treaty took a rollercoaster ride; especially in the Philippines. In general, the Philippine government has remained supportive of the treaty since its inception and has often relied on the United States to rely on its defence, as it has done since World War II. This was highlighted during the Cold War by the many U.S. military bases operating in the Philippines. The most notable and controversial of these bases are the Clark Air Force base outside the Angeles City subway station and the U.S. Subic Bay Naval Station. The bases were occupied for nearly 40 years after the end of the Second World War until the early 1990s. In 1991, the anti-American atmosphere in the Philippines forced the Philippine Senate to reject a new basic agreement that subsequently forced the withdrawal of all U.S.
forces from Philippine soil.  Faced with the rise of global terrorism with the events of 11.9. However, as china`s economic boom and militant expansion, the United States strengthened relations with its Asian allies, particularly the Philippines.  According to Ambassador Goldberg, EDCA`s goal is to “promote peace and security in the region.” While the agreement introduces new measures in the area of defence cooperation, it also allows the United States to respond more quickly to environmental and humanitarian disasters in the region.  On March 19, 2016, the Philippines and the U.S. government agreed to the five U.S. military base sites under the EDCA: Antonio Bautista Air Base (Palawan), Basa Air Base (Pampanga), Fort Magsaysay (Nueva Ecija), Lumbia Airport (Cagayan de Oro), Benito Ebuen Air Base (Mactan, Cebu).  The signing of the VFA led to the establishment of annual bilateral military exercises between the United States and the Philippines, known as balikatan, as well as a number of other cooperation measures.  Balikan (“shoulder-to-shoulder”) training exercises are annual military exercises between the United States and the Philippines.
They are structured to maintain and strengthen security relations between the armed forces of the two countries through crisis planning, increased training in the conduct of counter-terrorism operations and the promotion of the interoperability of the armed forces.  Evan Medeiros, the Director General of the National Security Council for Asian Affairs, was quoted in the Washington Post as saying: “This is the most important defence agreement we have reached with the Philippines in decades.”  Resistance to the Us-Philippine Mutual Defense Treaty has its periods on both sides of the Pacific. Given the longevity of the U.S. military presence in the Philippines the opposition to the U.S. military presence in the Philippines and the treaty itself began in the 1980s with the escalation of tensions around American political decisions and their consequences.  In the late 1970s and 1980s, the anti-US atmosphere increased after the growing U.S. accusations and aggressions.